Glossary

Unity
Humans are part of the totality of nature, are related to all other biological forms, and are not superior to them.

Two realities
Ordinary state of consciusness (OSC) accesses ordinary reality (OR), and shamanic state of consciousness (SSC) accesses non-ordinary reality (NOR).
Non-ordinary reality has to be understood as a parallel reality, a mystical field of experience – but not in the sense of a decoupled dimension, but rather as second side of the same coin.

Universe
Three worlds: Upper, Middle, Lower World.
The physical universe describes the ordinary aspect of the Middle World. More than this, the shamanic cosmos includes non-ordinary reality.

Spirits
Animated essence, spirtual-immaterial principles, with intelligence and power.

Soul
The individual, death enduring spirit of a being. Members of all species, including humans, have souls.

Helping spirits, allies
The spiritual helpers of shamans in non-ordinary reality. The most important ones are power animal and teacher.

Shamanic State of Consciousness (SSC)
A specific state of consciousness, usually induced by drumming, rattling or psychoactive substances, but also happening spontaneously. Being in a SSC, shamans can perceive non-ordinary reality and spirits.

Shamanic Journey
Intentional voyage in which the shaman, in an altered state of consciousness, enters non-ordinary reality to gain information and power. Ends with return to ordinary reality.

Shamanic tools
The most common ´tools´ of the shamans are drums and rattles. In addition, work is also done with stones (quarz crystals), feathers, wooden or metal objects.

(see Harner, Michael (2013): Cave and Cosmos: Shamanic Encounters with Another Reality. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. p. 255)